In a programme first broadcast in 2016, Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Baltic Crusades, the name given to a series of overlapping attempts to convert the pagans of North East Europe to Christianity at the point of the sword. From the 12th Century, Papal Bulls endorsed those who fought on the side of the Church, the best known now being the Teutonic Order which, thwarted in Jerusalem, founded a state on the edge of the Baltic, in Prussia. Some of the peoples in the region disappeared, either killed or assimilated, and the consequences for European history were profound.
Associate Professor of Archaeology at the University of Reading
Fellow of St Catharine's College and Reader in European History at the Faculty of History at the University of Cambridge
Director of the International Consultancy on Religion, Education, and Culture
Producer: Simon Tillotson